Which among the following are the recommendations proposed in the Spectrum Policy Initiative created in 2003?
A. Spectrum Sharing Innovation Test bed and Spectrum Sensing Tools
B. Spectrum Sharing Innovation Test bed and Spectrum Management Tools
C. Cross-layer Innovation Test bed and Spectrum Sensing Tools
D. Cross-layer Innovation Test bed and Spectrum Management Tools
Explanation: Spectrum Sharing Innovation Testbed and Spectrum Management Tools are the recommendations proposed in the Spectrum Policy Initiative created in 2003. Most of the recommendations pertained to the modification of the spectrum management infrastructure. The initiative states that technological advances can be exploited to overcome spectrum scarcity by spectrum sharing.
What is the purpose of Spectrum Sharing Innovation Test Bed?
A. Spectrum Sharing Innovation Test Bed sets aside a portion of the spectrum for testing
B. Spectrum Sharing Innovation TestBed determines terrain suitable for testing
C. Spectrum Sharing Innovation TestBed creates environment models for testing
D. Spectrum Sharing Innovation TestBed constructs conditioned chambers for testing
Explanation: Spectrum Sharing Innovation TestBed sets aside a portion of the spectrum for testing and evaluating the developing spectrum sharing methods. The Spectrum Policy Initiative predicted a likely surge in spectrum usage and developing spectrum sharing methods have to be tested accordingly.
What is the full form of CSIS organization?
A. Center for Skills and Intermediary Studies
B. Center for Skills and International Studies
C. Center for Strategic and International Studies
D. Center for Strategic and Intermediary Studies
Explanation: The Center for Strategic and International Studies is a private, bipartisan public policy research organization that offers inferences and solutions to current and upcoming problems. The center carries out strategic analyses of political, economic, and security issues with a focus on issues concerning international relations, trade, and technology.
Which among the following is a problem addressed by CSIS?
A. Shortage of short range plans
B. Lack of common spectrum testing techniques
C. Challenges in negotiating international spectrum agreements
D. Construction of flexible spectrum management infrastructure
Explanation: CSIS addressed four problems namely shortage of long range plans, lack of means to solve conflicts among spectrum management organizations, challenges in negotiating international spectrum agreements, and security and economic issues which might grow due to lack of technological development.
What are the recommendations proposed by CSIS for the improvement of spectrum management?
A. Establish fixed norms for proposing spectrum management algorithms
B. Establish research consortium to support the government and private sectors
C. Establish fixed regulations for spectrum sharing
D. Establish fixed regulations for spectrum sensing
Explanation: The research consortium sets goals for spectrum innovation research. It is responsible for solving technical conflicts that tend to arise with the change in technology. CSIS also recommended the formation of an organization comprising of the White House, National Security Council, National Economic Council, and spectrum advisory board.
Which among the following is the official US regulatory body for the RF spectrum?
A. International Organisation for Standardisation
B. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
C. American National Standards Institute
D. Federal Communication Commission
Explanation: Federal Communication Commission overlooks the communication carried out over radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable. The FCC consists of jurisdiction over the areas of broadband access, fair competition, radio frequency use, and public safety.
Which among the following is not addressed by the study conducted by Toffler associates in 2001?
A. Spectrum management
B. Technological impact of cognitive radio
C. Long term strategies for spectrum sharing
D. Methods of spectrum reallocation
Explanation: Toffler associates proposed a set of recommendations for spectrum policy. The study conducted by the Toffler associates focused on spectrum management, spectrum reallocation techniques, and long term spectrum sharing strategies. The group suggested the development of a framework capable of handling the changing techniques of spectrum access, spectrum sharing, and spectrum mobility.
Which among the following instigated a review of spectrum policy at FCC?
A. Establishment of Spectrum Policy Task Force
B. Establishment of research consortium
C. Collaboration with Federal Aviation Administration
D. Collaboration with the American National Standards Institute
Explanation: FCC stated that establishing the Spectrum Policy Task Force led to a thorough review of the spectrum policy of the FCC. The Spectrum Policy Task Force identified that a cognitive radio demanded changes in the spectrum policy. It also required different approaches to implement the spectrum policy.
Which among the following factors hinders effective spectrum usage according to the SPTF?
A. Lack of spectrum access
B. Lack of antenna technology
C. Lack of physical components of radios
D. Lack of high capacity processors
Explanation: Spectrum Policy Task Force identified the lack of capacity is due to the current regulations applied on spectrum access. SPTF supported multiple dimensional access of the spectrum. The FCC relies on SPTF to create spectrum policies and spectrum management techniques that could lead to better overall usage of the available spectrum.
Which among the following areas will not have an impact on cognitive radio?
A. Maximize the flexibility of spectrum usage
B. Promote spectrum access in rural areas
C. Apply a qualitative approach to interference management
D. Allow easement for spectrum overlays and underlays
Explanation: The recommendations proposed by SPTF maximize spectrum usage by allowing unlicensed users and promotes opportunistic spectrum access through secondary market policies. The SPTF promotes spectrum access in rural areas by altering the power levels, leasing, and geographical licensing.
Which among the following is false about the defence science board?
A. Defence Science Board comprises of technology and business experts
B. Defence Science Board is a Federal Advisory Committee for the US Department of Defence
C. Defence Science Board researches for the FCC
D. Defence Science Board is identified that using spectrum multiple dimension can reduce spectrum scarcity
Explanation: Defence Science Board is an advisory committee composed of technology and business experts, which conducts research pertaining to the US department of defence. It identified that by utilizing the spectrum in multiple dimensions such as time, frequency, and modulation, spectrum scarcity can be reduced. It promoted real-time sharing of spectrum.
Which among the following statements is false about a very high frequency omnidirectional range (VOR)?
A. VOR is a radio navigation system for aircrafts
B. The frequency range of VOR is 108.00 to 117.95 MHz
C. VOR is intolerant of diffraction
D. VOR signals show more accuracy than nondirectional radio beacon
Explanation: Very high frequency omnidirectional range is a radio navigation system incorporated in aircrafts to stay on route with the help of radio signals transmitted by a network of ground radio beacons. A prominent feature of VOR is that the bearing from the station to the aircraft is unaffected by wind and orientation of the aircraft.
What is the accuracy range offered by very high frequency omnidirectional range?
A. 50 m
B. 60 m
C. 80 m
D. 90 m
Explanation: Very high frequency omnidirectional range is a short-range radio navigation system. The signals are kept in the line of sight between the transmitter and receiver. It offers an accuracy of 90 m.
Which among the following techniques is employed in long range navigation (LORAN)?
A. Round trip time of a radio pulse
B. Time difference between two radio pulses
C. Phase difference between two continuous signals
D. Phase difference between the transmitter and the receiver
Explanation: Long range navigation is a hyperbolic radio navigation system operating at low frequencies. The hyperbolic navigation system in LORAN uses the time difference between radio pulses to locate the object of interest. An electronic clock was employed to generate trigger signals that maintain a fixed delay such as 1 ms between the transmitters.
What is the parameter which differentiates LORAN – B from LORAN – A?
A. Method of extraction of timing
B. Number of receivers
C. Number of transmitters
D. Determination of station location
Explanation: LORAN – B employed phase comparison variation and hence used a different method of timing extraction compared to LORAN A. The disadvantage of LORAN B is that its pulse length was about 40 microseconds and the technique exhibited phase distortion.
Which among the following techniques were employed for the identification of pairs in LORAN stations?
A. Modulation technique
B. Encoding scheme
C. Phase comparison between signals
D. Pulse repetition frequency
Explanation: LORAN stations are composed of a master station and two slave stations. Each pair typically broadcasted over the following frequencies of 1.75, 1.8, 1.85, or 1.9 MHz. However, the location of stations is such that it allowed a particular station to pick up signals from at least three stations. Thus to detect to pairs of signals, pulse repetition frequency comparison is employed.
Which among the following is essential for geo-location using IP address?
A. Database of registration lifetime of IP packets
B. Database of IP addresses
C. Database of routing path
D. Database of port address
Explanation: Geo-location software translates an IP address into a geo-location and provides the name of a country, city, or zip code. The software exploits the IP address of the sender included in the IP packet. There are a number of geo-location databases that offer different levels of accuracy.
Which among the following are sources for constructing an IP database?
A. Network routing information
B. Data mining
C. Regional Internet registry
D. Data scrubbing
Explanation: The primary source of the IP address database is the regional internet registries that assign the IP addresses to organizations within their service area. Network routing information extracted at the endpoint of an IP address, data mining, and data provided by Internet Service Providers are useful for constructing the IP database.
Which among the following is an application of geo-location software?
A. Regional licensing
C. Address translation
D. Diagnostic tools
Explanation: Internet services such are live streaming sporting events, or online streaming of television shows and music might be permitted to broadcast only over certain licensed territories. Geolocation is applied to avoid license violations. Fraud detection, Geomarketing, and gaming are other regions of interest.
Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Range begins with transmission of frequency modulated signal.
Explanation: Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Range begins with transmission of amplitude modulated signal with a constant frequency. The transmitted signal passes through a set of antenna in a circle introducing frequency modulated Doppler onto the received signal. The relative phase angle between amplitude modulated signal and frequency modulated signal is employed to find the location of the source.
Which among the following is not an objective of cognitive radio?
A. Adapt to the available spectrum
B. Minimize radio presence in the spectrum environment
C. Maximize radio presence for the networks
D. Exploit spectrum holes
Explanation: The objectives of the cognitive radio are to minimize the radio presence in a network while gathering data about the spectrum from the spectrum environment and to adapt to the available spectrum determined from the gathered data. The dynamic characteristics of the cognitive radio rely on its ability to sense the propagation conditions.
Which among the following is a definition of spectrum efficiency?
A. Number of bits per Hertz of bandwidth
B. Number of bauds per Hertz of bandwidth
C. Number of Hertz per bit of symbol sequence
D. Number of Hertz per bit of symbol sequence
Explanation: Modulation designers describe spectrum efficiency in terms of the number of bits per Hertz of bandwidth. It is used as a metric for measuring the performance of modulation techniques.
Which among the following outcome occur on increasing the energy per bit exponentially as per Shannon limit?
A. Radiated spectral energy increases at the second power of the spectral information density
B. Radiated spectral energy increases at the third power of the spectral information density
C. Spectral information density increases at the third power of the radiated spectral energy
D. Spectral information density increases at the second power of the radiated spectral energy
Explanation: Shannon limit specifies the maximum rate at which communication can be carried out without error in a channel with a given bandwidth. Shannon limit supports a claim that spectrum efficiency of infinite bits per Hertz can be achieved by increasing energy per bit exponentially. This results in the increase of radiated spectral energy at the third power of spectral information density.
Which among the following is a traditional method employed for effective use of spectrum?
A. Minimization of nodes per second
B. Maximization of nodes per second
C. Maximization of bits per Hz
D. Minimization of bits per Hz
Explanation: Spectrum efficiency metrics of traditional digital communication is simple as it involves measuring only the number of bits per Hz. When the number of bits per Hz is maximized, a minimal amount of spectrum is occupied. However defining spectrum metrics for cognitive radio is difficult as it includes the area of propagation in addition to the amount of spectrum.
Which among the following is an appropriate unit for spectrum usage in cognitive radio?
A. Bits per unit area
B. Noise per unit area
C. Noise temperature per unit area
D. Symbols per unit area
Explanation: Spectrum usage in the cognitive radio includes the area of propagation along with the amount of spectrum used. Hence the number of bits per unit area is an appropriate unit for spectrum usage in cognitive radio. This necessitates the inclusion of propagation in the Shannon limit.
Which among the following is a not consequence of increasing modulation depth?
A. Increase energy need
B. Increase spectral efficiency
C. Reduce effective spectrum usage of other users of the spectrum
D. Reduced noise floor
Explanation: Modulation depth provides the degree of difference between a modulated signal and an unmodulated signal. The increase of modulation depth is a poor solution for effective spectrum usage as it increases the energy needs of the operation. It affects the operation of other spectrum users as it results in the increase of noise floor or it precludes the operation at quickly increasing radii from the transmitter.
Which among the following phenomenon considers the operation of other users of the spectrum?
A. Spectrum efficiency
B. Spectrum reuse
C. Channel capacity
D. Signal energy
Explanation: Spectrum reuse is a critical phenomenon that includes the optimal operation of other users of the spectrum through spectrum sharing. It involves reporting the information of spectrum usage to spectrum broker and distributing spectrum usage information to other nodes.
Which among the following is a common factor between peer to peer cognitive radio and a digital radio?
B. Inbuilt rules
C. Time cycle
D. Local operation
Explanation: Peer to peer cognitive radio rely on spectrum usage information from local neighbours but is mostly controlled by a set of comprehensive rules which are provided by the manufacturer. This reduces the amount of overhead in communication but leads to reduced efficiency. Decisions are taken by combining local spectrum awareness and inbuilt rules.
Which among the following is not a prerequisite for cooperative sensing?
A. Non-corrupt neighbouring radios
B. Knowledge of spectrum environment
C. Knowledge of limits of transmission parameters
D. Central entity
Explanation: Cooperative spectrum sharing involves sharing spectrum usage and noise information to other nodes of the spectrum. This mode considers the operation of other spectrum users thus raising the overall spectrum efficiency of the network. It requires non-corrupt neighbouring radios, knowledge of spectrum environment, understanding of limits imposed on transmission parameters, and transparent sharing of spectrum information by transmitters.
Which among the following institution introduced interference temperature as a metric for interference?
A. Federal Communication Commission
B. American National Standards Institute
C. International Standards Organization
D. British Standards Institute
Explanation: Federal Communication Commission introduced interference temperature as a metric for modeling interference at the primary user produced by the secondary user. It is a measure of RF power generated by undesired transmitters and noise sources that are present in the receiver system per unit of bandwidth.
Diffracted propagation undergoes attenuation at the rate of the third power of distance.
Explanation: Cognitive radio shifts communication from direct propagation to diffracted propagation. Diffracted propagation undergoes attenuation at the rate of the fourth power of distance. It hinders the ability of the radio to sense, calculate interference, and evaluate the outcome of communication.
Which among the following is false about multiple input, multiple output scheme?
A. MIMO generates multiple orthogonalized channel
B. Channel awareness is used to design link
C. Coverts multiple path into multiple channels
D. Eliminates multiple path
Explanation: Multiple input, multiple output is a technique that introduces multiple antennas at the transmitter and the receiver generating several paths for transmission. MIMO introduces channel awareness on an architectural level and is employed in the generation of links and topology. It utilizes multipath and converts multiple paths into multiple channels.
Which among the following protocol is employed management information base?
A. Telecommunications Network
B. Simple Network Management Protocol
C. Network File System
D. File Transfer Protocol
Explanation: The management information base is a device-specific database that uses the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) for remotely managing a network resource on the basis of IP communications. The MIB should provide a standard interface for monitoring and configuring a device to gain the support of IP capable devices.
Which among the following is not a primary rule of role based access control?
A. Role definition
B. Role assignment
C. Role authorization
D. Permission authorization
Explanation: Role based access control is a mechanism that provides access depending on roles and the corresponding privileges and does not rely on policies. It can implement mandatory access control as well as discretionary access control. The following are the primary rules namely role assignment, role authorization, and permission authorization.
Which among the following languages initially influenced the KAoS policy language?
A. DARPA Agent Markup Language and Knowledge Query and Markup Language
B. DARPA Agent Markup Language and eXtensibleMarkup Language
C. DARPA Agent Markup Language and RoXenMarkup Language
D. eXtensible Markup Language and RoXenMarkup Language
Explanation: KAoS policy language expresses and applies policies in the software agent context. It was initially based on DARPA Agent Markup Language (DAML) and eXtensibleMarkup Language. But due to poor descriptive logic of DAML, KAoS shifted towards the Web Ontology Language to represent knowledge about domains and rule-based policies.
Which among the following is not a goal of the DARPA NeXt Generation radio communication program?
A. Dynamically redistribute allocated spectrum
B. Sense spectrum automatically
C. Expand communication bandwidth
D. Select operating mode
Explanation: The DARPA NeXt Generation radio communication program aims to develop a radio with technology that can dynamically redistribute the available spectrum in radio networks, thereby making the best use of available communication bandwidth. The spectrum should be sensed automatically. The selected operating mode should maximize the survivability of communication networks and reduce the amount of interference to other users of the spectrum.
Which among the following preceded the DARPA NeXt Generation radio communication program?
A. FFC Policy-Based Survivable communication program
B. DARPA Policy-Based Survivable communication program
C. FCC Frequency Agile Radio
D. DARPA Frequency Agile Radio
Explanation: DARPA Policy-Based Survivable communication program preceded the development of DARPA NeXt Generation radio communication program. It provided high survivability in the military environment and better performance gain could be achieved by downloading dynamic mission policies to supervise the radio networks automatically.
Which among the following is not a function of spectrum policy management?
A. Monitor spectrum utilization
B. Detect RF interference
C. Control run-time configuration of cognitive radio
D. Authorization of updates in cognitive radio
Explanation: Spectrum policy management analyses spectrum utilization and detects RF interference. The configuration of the cognitive radio during run time is controlled by spectrum policy management to meet the selected spectrum policies. However, it requires authorization to perform changes to the radio.
Which among the following statements is true about the spectrum policy management?
A. Eliminate cooperative sensing
B. Eliminates network administrators
C. Resolve conflicts in policy rules
D. Maintain homogeneity with legacy radios
Explanation: The spectrum policy management solves the conflicts in policy rule by identifying inconsistencies. It depends on the network administrators to determine the applicable spectrum policy for the spectrum environment, spectrum sharing mechanism, and other issues that arise due to cross layer design.
Which among the following is the first step in the operation of a cognition policy engine?
A. The cognitive engine transfers data to the policy engine
B. The policy engine requests data from cognitive radio
C. The policy engine obtains the set of policies to be downloaded
D. The policy engine determines the information of interest
Explanation: The first step in the operation of the cognition engine is to collect the set of policies to be downloaded for the operation of the radio. The policy next determines the information to be monitored on the radio platform. Then the cognitive radio grants the policy engine with the requested situational data. This results in the processing of appropriate policy rules.
Which among the following is an important assumption while operating with the Policy Core Information Model?
A. No storage is necessary
B. Cooperative storage
C. Centralized storage
D. Distributed storage
Explanation: Policy Core Information Model utilizes a centralized database. The policy enforcement point sends a request for a policy decision to the policy decision point. The policy decision point obtains information from the centralized database to take policy decisions.
Which among the following is an application of speech recognition?
A. Stress characterization
B. Network support
C. Access control
Which among the following is the process of providing voice samples to generate a template in speech recognition?
Which among the following parameters influence errors that occur in speaker recognition?
A. Amplitude dependency
B. Pitch dependency
C. Text dependency
D. Rate of speech dependency
Which among the following categories include a badge for authentication?
Which among the following is false about behaviour based authentication?
A. Behaviour authentication supports continuous mode operation
B. Behaviour authentication includes recognizing patterns
C. Behaviour authentication includes biometric detection
D. Behaviour includes network interaction
Which among the following is not a disadvantage of adapting specialized hardware for processing?
A. Update management
B. Functionality modification
C. High bandwidth requirement
Which among the following is a traditional method for language identification?
A. Phrase translation
B. Word translation
C. Letter translation
D. Phonetic translation
Explanation: Phonetic transcription is a traditional method for language identification. Phones are the subunits of basic sounds of speech. The relation between the occurrences of phones in different language is analyzed to develop a statistical model for each language for identification.
How to obtain cepstrum coefficients?
A. Cepstrum coefficients are obtained by taking Fourier transform of the spectrum
B. Cepstrum coefficients are obtained by taking Fourier transform of decibel spectrum
C. Cepstrum coefficients are obtained by taking Laplace transform of decibel spectrum
D. Cepstrum coefficients are obtained by taking Laplace transform of the spectrum
Explanation: Cepstrum coefficients are features employed in speech signal processing. It is obtained from the spectrum of a speech signal. Cepstrum coefficients are obtained by taking the Laplace transform of the decibel spectrum. Shifted delta cepstrum coefficients measure the changes in the speech spectrum over multiple frames of spectrum to model language characteristics.
Which among the following is not a region of interest associated with text to speech conversion?
A. Transcript generation
B. Pronunciation of named entities
C. Quality of voice synthesis
D. Conveyance of expression
What is a radio environment map?
A. Radio environment map represents a collection of access points in the immediate vicinity
B. Radio environment map provides insight on radio environment over multiple domains such as regulation and frequency emission
C. Radio environment map represents cognitive radios in the immediate vicinity
D. Radio environment map represents cognitive radios participating in cooperative sensing
Explanation: Radio environment map provides an abstraction of real time radio environment. It defines the radio environment of cognitive radio using multiple characteristic features such as geographical conditions, regulation, policy, capability of radio equipment, and radiofrequency emissions.
Which among the following statements is false about the radio environment map?
A. Radio environment map does not require complex circuitry in the user device
B. Radio environment map records radio frequency emissions
C. Radio environment map is a spatiotemporal database
D. Available resource map is extended from a radio environment map
Which among the following incorporates knowledge to support cognition functionality?
A. External administration support
B. Internal administration support
C. External network support
D. Internal network support
Explanation: External networks are other networks in an area with knowledge to promote cognition functionality. For example, a sensor network created to gather information on cognitive radio networks. Internal network offer communication services and cognition functionality.
Which among the following units communicates with radio environment map in legacy radios?
A. Local control and access manager
B. Local bus manager
C. Specialized processor
D. Network radio resource manager
Which among the following is a function of policy service?
A. Policy decision
B. Policy life cycle management
C. New policy request
D. Policy enforcement
Explanation: Police service is involved in the maintenance of policies that were downloaded and included in the radio frame by a policy authority. It performs policy life cycle management operations such as parsing the policy language, monitoring operation status, and eliminating outdated policies.
The cyclic coordinate method of optimization depends on the properties of objective functions.
Which among the following statements is false about a radio operating with the radio environment map?
A. Aware of application layer operations
B. Aware of physical layer operations
C. Awareness of performance metrics
D. Incompatibility with underlying radio access technology
Explanation: Radio environment map enables a radio to be aware of performance metrics such as data rate, spectral efficiency, etc. A radio with a radio environment map is comprehensive of each layer of protocol stack under different and varying radio environments. Radio environment map is compatible with underlying radio access technology regardless of the cognition capability of user radio.
____ are used to interact with the environment.
C. Structure models
Answer: Option B
A cognitive radio consists of sensors to collect information on the environment, actuators to interact with the environment, and a model of the environment with observed events stored in memory.
Adaptive radio can experiment new settings.
Answer: Option B
An adaptive radio can monitor itself and modify parameters according to sensor input. However learning from results of operations and experimenting with new data and policies is possible only in a cognitive radio.
Cognitive pilot channel is used ____
A. to obtain knowledge
B. for geo-location
C. for database access
D. for spectrum sensing
Answer: Option A
Cognitive pilot channel, geo-location, database access, and spectrum sensing are means to gain knowledge. The automatic and dynamic adjustment of operation parameters is done based on obtained knowledge.
Cognitive radio includes ____
A. heterogeneous infrastructure
B. asymmetrical infrastructure
C. equivalence infrastructure
D. symmetrical infrastructure
Answer: Option A
Heterogeneous network have heterogeneous radio framework management. It is possible to allocate frequency bands to different radio access technologies. Thus combination of different technologies can be achieved by heterogeneous network.
Cognitive radio requires ____ to lower the impact in case of malfunction.
C. PID controllers
Answer: Option B
Cognitive radio requiresregulators to lower the impact in case of malfunction. The most popular regulator used to constraint a cognitive radio is a regulatory policy engine that has machine-readable and interpretable policies.
Heterogeneous cognitive radio is a ____ centric approach.
B. RF band
Answer: Option C
Heterogeneous cognitive radio has a network centric approach where one or more operators operate several radio access networks using the same or different radio access technologies. Frequency bands allocated to these radio access networks are fixed.
Bands are allocated to radio access technology ____ in such a way that ____ is ____
A. dynamically, capacity, minimized
B. statically, interference, minimized
C. dynamically, capacity, maximized
D. statically, interference, maximized
Answer: Option C
Bands can be allocated to radio access technology dynamically in such a way the capacity is maximized and interference is minimized. The network operator may employ different radio access technology in accordance to time, frequency, and location. It can be used to acquire or exchange spectrum user rights.
In ____, radio access technologies use the same frequency band.
A. network centric approach
B. spectrum sharing
C. spectrum sensing
D. RF band centric approach
Answer: Option B
Spectrum sharing cognitive radio permits same or different radio access technologies to use same frequency band by using unoccupied sub-bands in an intelligent and coordinated way.
The ____ property allows elimination of a policy upon producing undesirable results.
C. try out
Answer: Option C
Machine readable policy controlled radio allows a policy to be implemented on few radios to assess the impact of the policy. If the results are undesirable, then policy can simply be eliminated. This enables quick decision making.
Which among the following allows quality of service measurement?
A. Software capable radio
B. Software programmable radio
C. Software defined radio
D. Aware radio
Answer: Option D
An aware radio provides quality of service measurement and channel state information in addition to the services provided by software defined radio. However it cannot modify the radio parameters according to sensor input.
Which among the following is a quality not available in a software capable radio?
A. Frequency hopping
B. Networking capability
C. Link establishment
D. Programmable cryptography
Answer: Option B
Frequency hopping, link establishment, and programmable cryptography are the features available in software capable radio. Each higher level radio possesses these basic capabilities with additional qualities. Networking capability and multi-waveform interoperability are additional features exhibited by software programmable radio.
Which among the following is not listed under cognitive capability?
A. Knowledge on operational environment
B. Adjustment of operational parameters
C. Knowledge on geographical environment
D. Establishment of policies
Answer: Option B
A cognitive radio has cognition, reconfiguration, and learning capability. The automatic and dynamic adjustment of operation parameters based on obtained knowledge to achieve set objective falls under reconfiguration capability.